June 2, 2023
Taxes must be paid to the state by May 2.

Taxes must be paid to the state by May 2.

Photo: Roman IGNATIEV


Most taxes are paid for us by employers and other “tax agents”. These are banks, brokerage companies and other financial institutions. In fact, we ourselves pay only property taxes – for example, for an apartment or a land plot (these notifications usually come to us in the fall). And the declaration should be submitted only by those who receive income from which none of the tax agents has paid taxes.

Here’s who should take care of filing a declaration:

– the one who sold the property, which was owned for less than the minimum period of ownership (more on this below);

– the one who was presented with real estate, a car or securities is not close relatives;

– one who received income from other people, for example, if he provided some services as an individual or rented out an apartment;

– lucky winners of lotteries and those who made a winning bet in a sports sweepstakes. If you win less than 15 thousand rubles (if you win more, the tax will be paid by the organizer of the lottery or the bookmaker – see “Let’s figure it out”).

– those who received income from abroad.

In addition, individual entrepreneurs, notaries, lawyers and other persons who are engaged in private practice must also declare income. But this applies to business. And these people are usually aware of their tax responsibilities.


The tax rate is uniform – 13% of the income received. Moreover, each type of income has a certain property deduction. That is, the amount that is not taxed (1 million for real estate and 250 thousand for other and property, more on this below). If the amount of income exceeds 5 million rubles, then an increased rate of 15% is applied for the amount in excess of 5 million.

The declaration must be submitted no later than May 2, 2023. This can be done in several ways: both in electronic form and in paper form (see “Instruction” KP “). In this case, it is not even necessary to come to your tax office. You need to calculate how much you owe the state yourself. And the tax must be paid before July 17, 2023.


The standard term is 5 years. If more than this time has passed from the moment of purchase to the moment of sale, then neither tax must be paid nor reported to the tax office. However, there are exceptions to the law. The minimum term is 3 years and not 5 years if:

– The apartment was inherited by you from a close relative;

– Housing passed into ownership by privatization;

– The apartment is the seller’s “only home”.

If the apartment was owned for less than the deadline, then personal income tax (personal income tax) must be paid. At the same time, from the amount of income received, it is necessary to deduct the amount spent on the purchase and specified in the purchase / sale agreement, and the property deduction (for real estate, this deduction is 1 million rubles, for the rest of the property – 250 thousand).

To make it clearer, let’s say that you bought an apartment 4 years ago and decided to sell it. Since less than 5 years have passed since the purchase, you will need to pay sales tax. If you sell it for 5 million, and at one time bought it for 3 million, then subtract 3 from 5, we get 2 million. From these two million, we will subtract another 1 million of the property deduction. It remains 1 million. That’s it and you need to pay 13% personal income tax, that is, 130 thousand rubles.


– Income from the sale of other property (here we are talking primarily about cars) is exempt from taxation if such property has been owned for more than 3 years (regardless of the method of its acquisition). If you sell earlier, then in this case, from the amount of income received, you also need to subtract the amount of expenses for the purchase of this property and subtract 250 thousand rubles (property deduction).

For example, if you sell a car for 1 million 350 thousand rubles, and bought it for 1 million, then subtract it from the amount of income. Get 350 thousand. Minus 250 thousand property deduction – 100 thousand rubles remain. Here from them also it is necessary to pay 13%, that is 13 thousand.


– If the amount of income from the sale of other property (for example, personal belongings) does not exceed 250 thousand rubles for the whole year, such income is not subject to declaration. If the amount is above 250 thousand, then in theory a declaration must be submitted. And also pay a percentage of the excess amount. But this is if you owned the things for less than three years. If things are old, then you don’t have to pay anything. But in reality, it is unlikely that anyone will check the sale of things through ad services, so you don’t need to worry.


– The self-employed do not need to declare the income received from the provision of their services. They pay it automatically through the My Tax mobile app. Additional reporting for the self-employed is not provided. Other income they received as individuals is subject to the same rules as for other individuals.


What lottery winnings do I need to pay tax on?

The tax must be paid, even if we are talking about very small amounts – 1000 or even 100 rubles. Remember that winnings received in 2022 from lottery operators, distributors, organizers of gambling held at a bookmaker’s office and totalizator are subject to mandatory declaration if the amount is less than 15 thousand rubles (each, and not in aggregate). Taxes on large prizes (more than 15 thousand rubles) are legally paid by the organizer of the lottery or drawing. In this case, he acts as a tax agent.

True, in any case, when receiving a win, you need to read the contract and clarify the tax nuances. Those organizations that do not belong to official lotteries, bookmakers and sweepstakes have no obligation to pay taxes for you. In this case, even with a large win, you will have to declare your income and pay the state yourself. On the other hand, if you got a big jackpot, it’s a sin to complain – you will still have 85-87% of the amount won.


So that the gift does not become a headache

* The law mentions “gifts from non-close relatives”, for which you need to report and pay taxes. First, how do you define kinship? Secondly, how much is it? For example, many people give money to colleagues for their birthdays – do you also need to report on such “income”?

– In this case, the composition of close relatives is limited. These include spouses, parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren, and siblings. If you received something from them, then you do not need to pay tax on the property received as a gift. But if necessary, you need to prove your relationship to the tax inspector by presenting documents. If we are talking about other people who have given you generous gifts, then you only need to report on income in the form of property and securities. If other people (not relatives) gave you money, you do not need to report to the tax.


What if I don’t file a claim?

– If it was necessary to pay personal income tax in accordance with your declaration, then the penalty for its late submission will be 5% of the tax amount for each overdue day, but not more than 30%. At the same time, the tax itself will also have to be paid. If according to the declaration it was not necessary to pay anything, then the fine for filing reports late will be a thousand rubles. For example, if you sold the same apartment earlier than 3 or 5 years, but at the same time, let’s say, you bought it for 4 million and sell it for 5, then taking into account the property deduction, you get zero income. And you don’t have to pay income tax. But this does not exempt you from filing a declaration.


Online or paper: how to report

On the website of the tax service (nalog.ru) there is a “Personal account of the taxpayer”. It allows you to fill out the declaration online in an interactive mode (with tips for filling it out) and send it to the tax office. If you didn’t set up a personal account on this site on purpose, you can still go there – using the login and password from the State Services portal.

But you can report in the old fashioned way – in paper form. For example, visit the inspection in person, send the declaration by mail (by registered mail with a list of attachments) or through the MFC. In April, all tax inspections work in an enhanced mode. Opening hours extended. Open days are held, hot lines are open where you can ask all your questions.

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